The central nervous system (CNS) has been proposed as a region of the body where HIV can escape antiretroviral control and develop drug resistance (sanctuary site). The Penetration of Antiretroviral Therapy into the Nervous System (PARTITION) study recruited 153 HIV-1 positive adults (≥18 years) receiving antiretroviral therapy from 13 centres in the UK. The main aim of the study was to examine the role of the central nervous system as sanctuary site.

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Patients Recruited

Key Contacts

Role Name Email
Clinical Research Fellow Dr Sam Nightingale


1.            Nightingale S, Michael BD, Fisher M, Winston A, Nelson M, Taylor S, Ustianowski A, Ainsworth J, Gilson R, Haddow L, Ong E, Leen C, Minton J, Post F, Beloukas A, Borrow R, Pirmohamed M, Geretti AM, Khoo S, Solomon T. CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance even at low levels is associated with up-regulation of host inflammatory mediators in CSF. Cytokine 2016; 83: 139-46.

2.            Nightingale S, Geretti AM, Beloukas A, Fisher M, Winston A, Else L, Nelson M, Taylor S, Ustianowski A, Ainsworth J, Gilson R, Haddow L, Ong E, Watson V, Leen C, Minton J, Post F, Pirmohamed M, Solomon T, Khoo S. Discordant CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA in patients with unexplained low-level viraemia. J Neurovirol 2016; 22: 852-60.

3.            Nightingale S, Chau TT, Fisher M, Nelson M, Winston A, Else L, Carr DF, Taylor S, Ustianowski A, Back D, Pirmohamed M, Solomon T, Farrar J, Torok ME, Khoo S, group PA-Vs. Efavirenz and metabolites in CSF; relationship with CYP2B6 c.516G>T genotype and perturbed blood-brain barrier due to tuberculous meningitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2016.


Author Title
Nightingale S HIV-1 RNA Detection in CSF in ART Treated Subjects with Incomplete Viral Suppression in Plasma
Nightingale S, Khoo S, Pirmohammed M, Solomon T. HIV and the Brain; Results from the PARTITION Study.

Book chapters

Author Title
Nightingale S, Michael BD, Solomon T. Oxford Textbook of Dementia and Cognitive Neurology - CNS Infections Chapter.
Nightingale S. Case Studies in Neurological Infection - HIV Dementia, Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephaloathy.
Nightingale S, Solomon T. Oxford Handbook of Tropical Medicine - Arboviral Infection and Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers