Enceph UK

The Enceph UK programme had three broad objectives:

-        to determine the clinical predictors of inflammation of the brain substance (i.e. encephalitis), and poor outcome,

-        to better understand what those outcomes are, and

-        to develop the means of intervening to improve the outcome.


For further information please visit: www.encephuk.org

enceph image
Patients Recruited

Key Contacts

Role Name Email Telephone
Clinical Research Fellow Dr Sylviane Defres sdefres@liv.ac.uk 0151 795 9600
Programme Manager Hayley Jelleyman h.e.jelleyman@liverpool.ac.uk 0151 795 9672
Data Manager Kieran Crabtree Kieran.Crabtree@liverpool.ac.uk 0151 795 9670


1. McGill F, Griffiths MJ, Bonnett L, Geretti AM, Michael BD, Beeching NJ, McKee D, Scarlett P, Hart IJ, Mutton K, Jung A, Adan G, Gummery A, Sulaiman WAW, Ennis K, Martin A, Haycox A, Miller A, Solomon T, on behalf of the UK Meningitis Study Investigators. Viral meningitis in UK adults - a multicentre prospective observational cohort study of incidence, aetiology and sequelae Lancet Infect Dis 2018; 18: 992-1003.

2. Hamid SHM, Whittam D, Saviour M, Alorainy A, Mutch K, Linaker S, Solomon T, Bhojak M, Woodhall M, Waters P, Appleton R, Duddy M, Jacob A. Seizures and Encephalitis in Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein IgG Disease vs Aquaporin 4 IgG Disease. JAMA Neurol 2018; 75: 65-71.

3. Depledge DP, Cudini J, Kundu S, Atkinson C, Brown JR, Haque T, Houldcroft CJ, Koay ES, McGill F, Milne R, Whitfield T, Tang JW, Underhill G, Bergstrom T, Norberg P, Goldstein R, Solomon T, Breuer J. High Viral Diversity and Mixed Infections in Cerebral Spinal Fluid From Cases of Varicella Zoster Virus Encephalitis. J Infect Dis 2018.

4. Hamid SHM, Whittam D, Mutch K, Linaker S, Solomon T, Das K, Bhojak M, Jacob A. What proportion of AQP4-IgG-negative NMO spectrum disorder patients are MOG-IgG positive? A cross sectional study of 132 patients. J Neurol 2017.

5. Hamid SH, Elsone L, Mutch K, Solomon T, Jacob A. The impact of 2015 neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders criteria on diagnostic rates. Mult Scler 2017; 23: 228-33.

6. Defres S, Keller SS, Das K, Vidyasagar R, Parkes LM, Burnside G, Griffiths M, Kopelman M, Roberts N, Solomon T, group EUs. A Feasibility Study of Quantifying Longitudinal Brain Changes in Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Encephalitis Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Stereology. PLoS One 2017; 12: e0170215.

7. Cooper J, Kierans C, Defres S, Easton A, Kneen R, Solomon T, group E-Us. Care beyond the hospital ward: understanding the socio-medical trajectory of herpes simplex virus encephalitis. BMC Health Serv Res 2017; 17: 646.

8. Wnek M, Ressel L, Ricci E, Rodriguez-Martinez C, Guerrero JC, Ismail Z, Smith C, Kipar A, Sodeik B, Chinnery PF, Solomon T, Griffiths MJ. Herpes simplex encephalitis is linked with selective mitochondrial damage; a post-mortem and in vitro study. Acta Neuropathol 2016; 132: 433-51.

9. Walker LE, Griffiths MJ, McGill F, Lewthwaite P, Sills GJ, Jorgensen A, Antoine DJ, Solomon T, Marson AG, Pirmohamed M. A comparison of HMGB1 concentrations between cerebrospinal fluid and blood in patients with neurological disease. Biomarkers 2016: 1-8.

10. Ray S, Riordan A, Tawil M, Mallucci C, Jauhari P, Solomon T, Kneen R. Subdural Empyema Caused by Neisseria meningitidis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016; 35: 1156-9.

11. O'Sullivan BJ, Steele T, Ellul MA, Kirby E, Duale A, Kier G, Crooks D, Jacob A, Solomon T, Michael BD. When should we test for voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies? A retrospective case control study. J Clin Neurosci 2016; 33: 198-204.

12. Nightingale S, Michael BD, Fisher M, Winston A, Nelson M, Taylor S, Ustianowski A, Ainsworth J, Gilson R, Haddow L, Ong E, Leen C, Minton J, Post F, Beloukas A, Borrow R, Pirmohamed M, Geretti AM, Khoo S, Solomon T. CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance even at low levels is associated with up-regulation of host inflammatory mediators in CSF. Cytokine 2016; 83: 139-46.

13. Nightingale S, Geretti AM, Beloukas A, Fisher M, Winston A, Else L, Nelson M, Taylor S, Ustianowski A, Ainsworth J, Gilson R, Haddow L, Ong E, Watson V, Leen C, Minton J, Post F, Pirmohamed M, Solomon T, Khoo S. Discordant CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA in patients with unexplained low-level viraemia. J Neurovirol 2016; 22: 852-60.

14. Nightingale S, Chau TT, Fisher M, Nelson M, Winston A, Else L, Carr DF, Taylor S, Ustianowski A, Back D, Pirmohamed M, Solomon T, Farrar J, Torok ME, Khoo S, group PA-Vs. Efavirenz and metabolites in CSF; relationship with CYP2B6 c.516G>T genotype and perturbed blood-brain barrier due to tuberculous meningitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2016.

15. Michael BD, Griffiths MJ, Granerod J, Brown D, Davies NW, Borrow R, Solomon T. Characteristic Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles in Encephalitis of Infectious, Immune-Mediated, and Unknown Aetiology. PLoS One 2016; 11: e0146288.

16. Michael BD, Griffiths MJ, Granerod J, Brown D, Keir G, Wnek G, Cox DJ, Vidyasagar R, Borrow R, Parkes LM, Solomon T. The Interleukin-1 Balance During Encephalitis Is Associated With Clinical Severity, Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability, Neuroimaging Changes, and Disease Outcome. J Infect Dis 2016; 213: 1651-60.

17. Iro MA, Sadarangani M, Absoud M, Chong WK, Clark CA, Easton A, Gray V, Kneen R, Lim M, Pike M, Solomon T, Vincent A, Willis L, Yu LM, Pollard AJ. ImmunoglobuliN in the Treatment of Encephalitis (IgNiTE): protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open 2016; 6: e012356.

17. Granerod J, Davies NW, Mukonoweshuro W, Mehta A, Das K, Lim M, Solomon T, Biswas S, Rosella L, Brown DW, Crowcroft NS, Group UKPHEAoES. Neuroimaging in encephalitis: analysis of imaging findings and interobserver agreement. Clin Radiol 2016; 71: 1050-8.

18. Ellul MA, Griffiths MJ, Iyer A, Avula S, Defres S, Baborie A, Vincent A, Martin NG, Sadarangani M, Pollard AJ, Solomon T, Kneen R. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis In A Young Child With Histological Evidence On Brain Biopsy Of Coexistent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016; 35: 347-9.

19. Cooper J, Kierans C, Defres S, Easton A, Kneen R, Solomon T. Diagnostic Pathways as Social and Participatory Practices: The Case of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. PLoS One 2016; 11: e0151145.

20. Turtle L, Jung A, Beeching NJ, Cocker D, Davies GR, Nicolson A, Beadsworth MB, Miller AR, Solomon T. An integrated model of care for neurological infections: the first six years of referrals to a specialist service at a university teaching hospital in Northwest England. BMC Infect Dis 2015; 15: 387.

21. Dodd KC, Michael BD, Ziso B, Williams B, Borrow R, Krishnan A, Solomon T. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in pregnancy - a case report and review of reported patients in the literature. BMC Res Notes 2015; 8: 118.

22. Backman R, Foy R, Michael BD, Defres S, Kneen R, Solomon T. The development of an intervention to promote adherence to national guidelines for suspected viral encephalitis. Implement Sci 2015; 10: 37.

23. Defres S, Mayer J, Backman R, Kneen R. Performing lumbar punctures for suspected CNS infections: experience and practice of trainee doctors. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2015;76:658-62.

24. Backman R, Foy R, Diggle PJ, Kneen R, Defres S, Michael BD, Medina-Lara A, Solomon T. The evaluation of a tailored intervention to improve the management of suspected viral encephalitis: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. Implement Sci 2015; 10: 14.

25. Harvala H, Griffiths M, Solomon T, Simmonds P. Distinct systemic and central nervous system disease patterns in enterovirus and parechovirus infected children. J Infect 2014; 69: 69-74.

26. Goenka A, Michael BD, Ledger E, Hart IJ, Absoud M, Chow G, Lilleker J, Lunn M, McKee D, Peake D, Pysden K, Roberts M, Carrol ED, Lim M, Avula S, Solomon T, Kneen R. Neurological manifestations of influenza infection in children and adults: results of a National British Surveillance Study. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 58: 775-84.

27. Matata C, Defres S, Jones C, Gummery A, Solomon T. Management of acute confusion in patients with CNS infections. Nurs Stand. 2013;28:49-58.

28. Michael BD, Powell G, Curtis S, Bailey L, Almond S, McGill F, Cousins D, Hart IJ, Griffiths M, Kneen R, Solomon T. Improving the diagnosis of central nervous system infections in adults through introduction of a simple lumbar puncture pack. Emerg Med J 2013; 30: 402-5.

29. Benjamin LA, Kelly M, Cohen D, Neuhann F, Galbraith S, Mallewa M, Hopkins M, Hart IJ, Guiver M, Lalloo DG, Heyderman RS, Solomon T. Detection of herpes viruses in the cerebrospinal fluid of adults with suspected viral meningitis in Malawi. Infection 2013; 41: 27-31.

30. Benjamin LA, Joekes E, Das K, Beeching NJ, Wilkins E, Solomon T. Diagnostic accuracy of the Recognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room (ROSIER) score and CT brain in an HIV population. J Infect 2013.

31. Kelly MJ, Benjamin LA, Cartwright K, Ajdukiewicz KM, Cohen DB, Menyere M, Galbraith S, Guiver M, Neuhann F, Solomon T, Lalloo DG, Heyderman RS. Epstein-barr virus coinfection in cerebrospinal fluid is associated with increased mortality in Malawian adults with bacterial meningitis. J Infect Dis 2012; 205: 106-10.

32. Kelly CM, Miller AR, Aji B, Solomon T. HIV dementia: a diagnosis to keep in mind. Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2012; 73: 410-1.

33. Kelly C, Sohal A, Michael BD, Riordan A, Solomon T, Kneen R, Northwest Neurological Infections Network. Suboptimal management of central nervous system infections in children: a multi-centre retrospective study. BMC Pediatr 2012; 12: 145.

34. Wong SH, Jenkinson MD, Faragher B, Thomas S, Crooks D, Solomon T. Brain biopsy in the management of neurology patients. Eur Neurol 2010; 64: 42-5.

35. Michael BD, Sidhu M, Stoeter D, Roberts M, Beeching NJ, Bonington A, Hart IJ, Kneen R, Miller A, Solomon T, North West Neurological Infections N. Acute central nervous system infections in adults--a retrospective cohort study in the NHS North West region. QJM 2010; 103: 749-58.

36. Michael B, Menezes BF, Cunniffe J, Miller A, Kneen R, Francis G, Beeching NJ, Solomon T. Effect of delayed lumbar punctures on the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in adults. Emerg Med J 2010; 27: 433-8.

37. Kneen R, Jakka S, Mithyantha R, Riordan A, Solomon T. The management of infants and children treated with aciclovir for suspected viral encephalitis. Arch Dis Child 2010; 95: 100-6.